松梅竹菊寓高洁， 借月托雁寄乡思。 杜鹃鹧鸪啼凄凄， 梧桐叶落透悲意。 别时长亭柳依依， 落花流水传愁绪。 乌鸦燕子系兴衰， 草木仍在人事移。 1、“松梅竹菊”寓高洁： 松梅竹菊是品行高洁、不畏邪恶的形象化身，古人常用这四种形象表现高洁的情操。刘桢《赠从弟》有云：“岂不罹凝寒，松柏有本性。”王吉《咏竹》则言：“岁寒别有非常操，不比寻常草木同。”元稹《菊花》一诗有云：“不是花中偏爱菊，此花开尽更无花”。写梅的诗句也有很多，如“遥知不是雪，为有暗香来。”“零落成泥碾作尘，只有香如故。”2004年北京卷考察的是苏轼的《红梅》，该诗表现出了红梅不畏严寒，不与桃杏争春的高洁品格。 2、借“月”托“雁”寄乡思 皓月当空常常引起游子的思乡之情，唤起诗人的怀远之念，如：李白《静夜思》“举头望明月，低头思故乡”，杜甫《月夜忆舍弟》“露从今夜白，月是故乡明”，再如苏轼“人有悲欢离合，月有阴晴圆缺”，均表达了诗人的思乡之情。 雁是一种候鸟，古诗词常用大雁南飞的景象书写在外游子的思乡之情。2004年湖北高考语文卷所出的诗是王湾的《次北固山下》。诗的最后两句写道：“乡书何处达?归雁洛阳边。”诗人漂泊流浪，到底什么时候能重返故乡，连泊舟中的诗人自己也不清楚，因此他只好寄希望于春光中北归的大雁为自己传书了。归雁这一意象写出了作者的思归之情。 3、“杜鹃”“鹧鸪”啼凄凄 杜鹃，又名子规、杜宇等，在古代神话中，蜀王杜宇(即望帝)在让位于他的臣子后隐居山林，死后灵魂化为杜鹃，又说杜鹃叫声如“不如归去”，于是古诗中的杜鹃就成为了凄凉、哀伤的象征。2004年全国卷Ⅱ诗词鉴赏题考察的是晏几道的《鹧鸪天》： 鹧鸪天晏几道 十里楼台倚翠微，百花深处杜鹃啼。殷勤自与行人语，不似流莺取次飞。惊梦觉，弄晴时。声声只道不如归。天涯岂是无归意，争奈归期未可期。 题目问道：在这首词中，作者为什么要描写杜鹃的啼叫声?此问的解答就应从杜鹃的叫声入手，词中也提到了“声声只道不如归”，表达的是作者漂泊之外的思归之情。 古诗词中出现的“鹧鸪”这一意象也经常透出悲凉之意。比如李白的《越中览古》：“宫女如花满春殿，只今惟有鹧鸪飞。” 4、“梧桐”叶落透悲意 古语有“一叶落而知秋”，说的便是梧桐叶落。以梧桐写悲秋，是古人常用的手法。2004年福建卷的诗词鉴赏题为朱淑真的《秋夜》，其中就写到了“梧桐”这一意象： 夜久无眠秋气清，烛花频剪欲三更。铺床凉满梧桐月，月在梧桐缺处明。 此诗中，凉床、月影和梧桐，共同营造出孤寂的意境。 5、别时“长亭”“柳”依依 在古典诗词里，杨柳常常与离情相关联，《诗经》中的《采薇》便写道：“昔我往矣，杨柳依依;今我来思，雨雪霏霏。”柔弱的杨柳摇摆不定的形体，最能传递亲友离别时依依难舍之情。此外，“柳”与“留”也谐音。长亭为古人送别之场所，因此也是送别诗中经常出现的意象。柳永的《雨霖铃》同时写到了这两种意象，分别是“寒蝉凄切，对长亭晚。”以及“今宵酒醒何处，杨柳岸晓风残月。” 6、落“花”流“水”传愁绪 “花”落让人爱怜、伤感，“水”流或喧嚣或舒缓，绵延不绝，最惹人愁绪，因此，在古诗词中常用落花流水来表达忧愁。如李煜《虞美人》：“春花秋月何时了，往事知多少”，“问君能有几多愁，恰似一江春水向东流”;又如李清照《一剪梅》：“花自飘零水自流，一种相思，两处闲愁。” 7、“乌鸦”“燕子”系兴衰 乌鸦这种鸟经常在坟头等地出现，常被视为不祥之兆，诗人常用“乌鸦”这一意象渲染出衰败的氛围。燕子则因其有眷恋旧巢的特点，成为古典诗词表现时事变迁，抒发历史兴衰感慨的寄托。出现“乌鸦”这一意象的高考题目不少，如：2006年湖北卷《丹阳送韦参军》“日晚江南望江北，寒鸦飞尽水悠悠”，2006年江苏卷《鹧鸪天》“山接水，水明霞，满林残照见归鸦”。2007年浙江卷出了一道对比鉴赏题，分别是刘禹锡的《乌衣巷》、吴激的《人月圆》和元曲《山坡羊.燕子》，三篇作品均通过“燕子”这一意象，表达了深沉的兴亡之感。 8、“草木”仍在人事移 草木常青，人事却已悄然发生变迁。古诗词常用“草木”来表达物是人非的感慨以及对历史兴亡的感叹。如《扬州慢》“过春风十里，尽荠麦青青”。2007年湖北卷诗词鉴赏题《过华清宫》也用到了树木的意象：“玉辇升天人已尽，故宫惟有树长生。”
Knowledge Points of Implications of Ancient Chinese Poems and Ci in College Entrance Examination
Pine plum, bamboo and chrysanthemum reside in noble, borrow the moon to send goose homesickness. The cuckoo partridge cries sadly and the leaves of the sycamore fall sadly. Don't spend too long in pavilions and willows, falling flowers and flowing water to convey melancholy. Crows and swallows are flourishing and declining, while grass and trees are still moving. 1. "Pine plum, bamboo and chrysanthemum" contains nobility: Pine plum, bamboo and chrysanthemum are the image incarnation of nobility and fear of evil. Ancient people often used these four images to express noble sentiments. Liu Zheng's "Gift to My Brother" has a cloud: "Don't you suffer from freezing cold, pine and cypress have their own nature." Wang Ji's Yongzhu says, "There is something special about Suihan. It's not unusual for plants to be the same." Yuanzhen's poem "Chrysanthemum" has a cloud: "It's not that chrysanthemum is preferred among flowers, this flower blossoms even more without flowers". There are many poems about plum, such as "Far knowledge is not snow, for there is a subtle fragrance to come." "Scattered into mud and ground into dust, only fragrant as ever." In Beijing Volume 2004, Su Shi's "Red Plum" was inspected. The poem shows the noble character of "Red Plum" that does not fear cold and does not compete with peaches and apricots for spring. 2. The homesickness of homesickness often arouses the poet's nostalgia for homesickness by means of "moonlight" and "goose" in the sky. For example, Li Bai's "Silent Night Thoughts" expresses the poet's homesickness by "looking up at the bright moon and bowing his head to homesickness", Du Fu's "Moon Night Memories My elder brother" expresses the poet's homesickness by showing "the white of tonight, the moon is home bright" and Su Shi's "people have sorrow and joy, the moon is cloudy and clear". 。 The wild goose is a kind of migratory bird. The scenery of wild goose flying south is often used in ancient poetry to describe the homesickness of the wanderers. The poems published in the language paper of Hubei College Entrance Examination in 2004 are Wang Wan's "Under the Second Beigu Mountain". The last two sentences of the poem say, "Where can I get the local script? It's on the edge of the Yan and Luoyang." The poet drifted and wandered, when he could return to his homeland, even the poet himself in the boat was not clear, so he had to hope that the geese returning to the north in the spring would pass on the book for himself. The image of "Goose Goose" expresses the author's feelings of return. 3. In ancient mythology, Duyu, king of Shu, lived in the mountains after giving up his courtiers. After his death, his soul turned into a rhododendron. He also said that the Rhododendron cry like "Better to go back", so the Rhododendron in ancient poetry became a symbol of desolation and sadness. In 2004, the National Volume II Poetry Appreciation Theme inspected Yan Jidao's "Parrot Sky": Parrot Sky, with its ten-mile terrace leaning on the verdant and its cuckoo crowing in the depth of a hundred flowers. Courtesy and pedestrianism are not like a flowing warbler taking a second flight. Dream-stricken, clear up. Sound is better than sound. The end of the world is not without intention, but the end of the struggle can not be expected. Question: In this poem, why does the author describe the cuckoo's cry? The answer to this question should start with the cuckoo's cry. The word also mentions that "sound is better than sound", which expresses the author's homesickness beyond wandering. The image of "parrot" appearing in ancient poems often conveys sadness. For example, Li Bai's "Viewing the Ancient in Yuezhong": "Palace girls are like flowers in the Spring Palace, only parrots fly today." 4. "Wutong" leaves fall deeply sad old saying, "one leaf falls but knows autumn", that is, Wutong leaves fall. Writing sad autumn with Wutong is a common method in the ancients. In 2004, the poem appreciation title of Fujian Volume was "Autumn Night" written by Zhu Shuzhen. Among them, the image of "Wutong" was written: sleepless autumn air is clear at night, and candles and flowers are cut off frequently. The bed is cool and full of the sycamore moon. The moon is bright in the absence of the sycamore. In this poem, the cold bed, the moon shadow and the Chinese parasol together create a lonely mood. 5. When leaving, "Changting" and "Liu" depend on classical poems, willows are often associated with divorce, and "Caiwei" in the Book of Songs writes: "I used to be, Yang Liu Yi; now I come to think, rain and snow are falling fast." Weak willow wavering shape, the most able to convey relatives and friends when leaving reluctant to give up. In addition, "Liu" and "Liu" are also homophonic. Long Pavilion is the place where the ancients bid farewell, so it is also a common image in farewell poems. Liu Yong's Rain Ling also describes these two images, which are "cold cicadas are sad, late to the pavilion". And "where to wake up tonight, willow bank Xiaofengmai month." 6. Flowers flow with water to convey melancholy. Flowers fall with love and sadness. Flowers flow with noise or relief, which is the most melancholy. Therefore, flowers flow with water is often used to express melancholy in ancient poetry. For example, Li Yu's "Yu Beauty", "When is the Spring Flower and Autumn Moon, how much do you know about the past", "Ask how sorrowful you can be, just like a river flowing eastward"; and Li Qingzhao's "A Cut of Plum": "Flowers drifting freely, a kind of love, two idle sorrows." 7. "Crow" and "Swallow" are flourishing and declining crows, which often appear in graves and other places. They are often regarded as ominous omens. Poets often use the image of "crow" to depict the decadent atmosphere. Swallow, because of its attachment to the old nest, has become the repository of classical poetry to express the changes of current events and the rise and fall of history. The image of "crow" appeared in many subjects of college entrance examination, such as: in 2006, Hubei volume "Danyang sent Wei to join the army", "looking north of the Yangtze River in the south of the Yangtze River in the evening, the Jackdaw flew away in the water leisurely", in 2006, Jiangsu volume "Parrot Sky" of "mountains and rivers, water bright clouds, the remnants of the forest to see the returned crow". In 2007, a comparative appreciation topic was published in Zhejiang Province, namely Liu Yuxi's Wuyi Lane, Wu Ji's Renyueyuan and Yuanqu's Goat on the Slope. Swallow. All the three works express a deep sense of prosperity and decline through the image of swallow.